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Question #

Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to the section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgement in rejecting Novartis' patent application for 'Glivec'. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision.

ChatGPT Answer #

In 2005, the Indian Patent Law underwent an amendment to Section 3(d) in response to specific circumstances. This amendment sought to address concerns regarding the rising prices of patented drugs, particularly for life-saving medicines. It aimed to enable more affordable access to essential medicines for the Indian population.

The amendment to Section 3(d) brought a change in the requirements for patentability, specifically for incremental innovations or modifications of known substances. Under this amendment, patents could no longer be granted to new forms or derivatives of substances that did not significantly enhance the efficacy or therapeutic effectiveness of the original substance.

This amendment had a significant impact in the rejection of Novartis' patent application for its anti-cancer drug 'Glivec' in the subsequent case before the Indian Supreme Court. Novartis argued that 'Glivec' displayed improved therapeutic efficacy and deserved patent protection. However, the Supreme Court disagreed and rejected the patent application based on Section 3(d), as it believed that 'Glivec' was merely an improved form of a known substance called imatinib, without significantly enhancing its efficacy.

The judgement in the Novartis case has been highly debated, with supporters and critics having different perspectives on its pros and cons.


1. Increased affordability: The rejection of Novartis' patent application for 'Glivec' has allowed Indian pharmaceutical companies to produce more affordable generic versions of the medicine. This has potentially increased access to life-saving drugs for patients in need.

2. Balancing innovation: The decision promotes a balance between patent holders' rights and public interest. It restricts excessive patenting of incremental innovations, ensuring that genuine innovations with significant therapeutic value receive patent protection.

3. Encouraging research and development: The decision could encourage more research and development in the Indian pharmaceutical sector. By limiting patent protection for incremental innovations, it incentivizes companies to focus on more substantial breakthroughs for enhanced therapeutic effectiveness.


1. Unclear interpretation of Section 3(d): The interpretation of Section 3(d) has been subject to various interpretations, leading to uncertainty for patent applicants. This might discourage innovative research and development, as companies may hesitate to invest in uncertain patent protection outcomes.

2. Lack of international harmonization: The stringent criteria applied by the Indian Supreme Court under Section 3(d) are not in line with international patent standards. This could hamper foreign investment in the Indian pharmaceutical industry and potentially limit access to certain international patented drugs.

3. Impact on innovation incentives: The rejection of Novartis' patent application could be seen as discouraging incremental innovations. If companies fear that their incremental improvements may not be eligible for patent protection, they may hesitate to invest in such research, potentially impeding overall progress in drug development.

The pros and cons of the decision in the Novartis case highlight the complex balance between ensuring access to affordable medicines and incentivizing innovation. The impact of the decision goes beyond this particular case, as it has set a precedent for the interpretation of Section 3(d) in subsequent patent applications in India.

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